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Additional info for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15
This tends t o concentrate the atoms effusing from the source within a smaller solid angle with a saving of oven material, in this case, cesium. The channeled source also tends to reduce the number of slow atoms detected because of this concentration of the beam-at least if the oven and detector are placed on the axis of the machine in the usual way. The geometry of the apparatus will affect the velocity distribution. If the deflecting magnet pole shoes are too close together, the slow atoms that could be detected will be eliminated from the beam and the spectral line will be broad.
571 (65) where v is the velocity of the atoms, and 1 is the length of the oscillating field traversed by the atoms. 799 -* (66) 1 If the velocity distribution of the atoms in the beam is taken into account (6, 7 ) [bl = a! 891 , (67) where a! is the most probable velocity in the source and the velocity distribution in the beam is assumed to be that for simple effusion through an ideal aperture. 07 1 (68) a? The radiation field intensity required t o produce the optimum transition probability is given by Eqs.
The important sources of noise remaining are the Brownian motion of electricity in the grid circuit and the shot noise of the grid current. Using that the mean the Schottky and Nyquist relations, it can be shown (19,20) squared deviation of the grid current is given by so long as the time constant r of the galvanometer is much less than the time constant, R,C,, of the grid circuit. In Eq. 60 X 10-19 coul), and I is the grid current in amperes. 36 RICHARD C. , if 7 >> R,C,, and if (2kT/R,) >> eI, then As an example suppose that C, = 20ppf, T = 300"K, R, = 1OO ' ohms, and I = 1 X 10-12 amp.
Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15