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Additional resources for AGU Ref Shelf. Rock Physics and Phase Relations

Example text

For the shale over brinesand, the reflection coefficient is positive at normal incidence and becomes negative with increasing angle. In principle, by modeling the variation of reflection coefficient with angle of incidence, it is possible to determine both R, and R,. In practice, the technique is complicated by many effects such as attenuation, anisotropy, beam spreading, etc. Nevertheless, for several years AVO has been a subject of great interest in the seismic exploration community. A recent review volume by Castagna and Backus [ 141is recommended.

Heitowit, The partition of energy for hypervelocity impact craters formed in rock, in Proceedings of the 6th Hypervelocity Impact Symposium, pp. 420-456, Cleveland, Ohio, 1963. Gregson, V. , C. F. Peterson, and J. C. Jamieson, Stanford Res. , AFCRL 63-662, 1963. Hughes, D. , and R. G. McQueen, Density of basic rocks at very high pressures, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 39,959-965, 1958. , and T. J. Ahrens, The equation of state of a lunar 60025, in Lunar and anorthosite: Planet. Sci. Co@ 9th, pp. 2789.

The solid curve indicates the calculated bulk modulus of the pore fluid. The dashed reference lines labeled ‘gas’, ‘oil’ and ‘water’ represent the bulk moduli of those pore fluids. The presence of gas is indicated from 2343 to 2350 meters, oil from 2350 to 2365 meters and from 2368 to 2373 meters, and water elsewhere. Attenuation data are not routinely used to determine rock properties because it is very difficult to get accurate measurements of attenuation, either from seismics or well-logs. It has long been known that the presence of gas will reduce compressional wave amplitudes, resulting in cycle-skipping on sonic logs.

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AGU Ref Shelf. Rock Physics and Phase Relations by T. Ahrens

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